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What Are Antioxidants and What Do They Do?

alpha lipoic acid antioxidants carotenoids CoQ10 flavonoids free radicals glutathione oxidation oxidative stress superoxide dismutase vitamin A vitamin C vitamin E

Antioxidant Molecules

In this blog, we will discuss a group of substances known as "antioxidants," and help you understand why many scientists promote a link between antioxidants and staying youthful and healthy. Secondly, we will try to show you why you may need a wide variety of antioxidants from wholefood sources to accomplish this goal, as opposed to taking mega doses – in synthetic supplement form – of only one or two.

Antioxidants are molecules that help prevent the oxidation of other molecules. But what is oxidation? Oxidation is the process by which something reacts with oxygen. Now of course, oxygen is vital for life, however, it also plays role in the slow decline of our bodies, through the process of oxidation, also known as oxidative stress.

Oxidative stress contributes to ageing, can convert healthy cells into cancerous ones, promote inflammation, elevate blood pressure and harden arteries.

The oxygen (O2) that we breathe is made up of two oxygen molecules, which once they enter our body lose an electron, turning into a compound known as superoxide. Superoxide is a highly-reactive, free radical which then begins a process of stealing electrons from other molecules within your body.

Free radicals

The body produces free radicals as part of its normal everyday function. They can be produced when you exercise, in response to inflammation and environmental toxins, when the body is exposed to sunlight and through many other everyday processes.

Essentially, free radicals are molecules missing electrons, which makes the molecule very reactive and “aggressive”.

Free radicals seek to steal electrons from many of the molecules, compounds, proteins in your body and can also result in damage to your DNA and other cell structures. Yes, damage to your very DNA.

But it gets worse.

Free radicals can have a snowballing effect in which molecule after molecule steals from its neighbour, each one becoming a new free radical once it's been electron-robbed, leaving a trail of biological carnage.

If your body does not get adequate protection, free radicals can become rampant, causing your cells to perform poorly. This can lead to tissue degradation and put you at risk of diseases.

This is where antioxidants come in.

Antioxidants

How do antioxidants work?

Antioxidants are electron donors, as they essentially have a spare electron. They can break the free radical chain reaction by sacrificing their own electrons to feed free radicals, but without turning into free radicals themselves.

Antioxidants are nature's way of providing your cells with adequate defence against attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS). If you have these important micro-nutrients, your body will be able to resist some of the effects of ageing. If you don't have an adequate supply of antioxidants to help squelch free radicals, then you can be at risk of oxidative stress, which leads to accelerated tissue and organ damage.

There are numerous antioxidants known today, and these can naturally occur in the body or be found in whole and organic foods or high-quality antioxidant supplements.

Different types of antioxidants

There are many ways to classify antioxidants, however, the most appropriate for people looking to increase their intake is whether it is Fat Soluble (Hydrophobic) or Water Soluble (Hydrophilic)

  1. Fat (Lipid) Soluble Antioxidants live in your cell membranes and help to protect against a process called “lipid peroxidation”. This is essentially free radical damage to fat tissue. Some examples of lipid-soluble antioxidants arevitamin A  and E, carotenoids, and co-enzyme Q10.
  2. Water Soluble Antioxidants are found in aqueous (watery) fluids like your blood and the fluids within and around your cells. Some examples of water-soluble antioxidants arevitamin C, flavonoids, and glutathione.

It is important to get a wide variety of each, through as many different sources as possible, as some antioxidants are restricted to certain areas of the body, for example lutein is found primarily in the eyes and skin.

Antioxidant Foods

Dr Richard Passwater summarises,

“Combinations of antioxidants are like a balanced symphony working together. A symphony orchestra produces sounds so much more harmonious than merely having 20 drums playing. It is not the quantity, but the blend. The same is true with antioxidant nutrients: you get better results with moderate amounts of a full complement than you get with using very large amounts of just one nutrient.

For this reason, most of us in the field recommend that a person take a variety of antioxidants (a "cocktail"), not just a single substance.

The importance of synergism is that the antioxidant nutrients each contribute to the total protection. They work together in the antioxidant cycle and reach all body compartments--fat and water-based, blood and internal cell. They protect against all types of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. No one antioxidant can do all of this.”


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